❶ In advertising various strategies are used to persuade people to buy products. In order to sell more products, advertisers will often try to make us believe that a product will meet our needs or desires perfectly, even if it’s not true. The strategies that they use can be subtle, friendly forms of persuasion that are sometimes hard to recognize. ❷ In a lot of ads, repetition is a key strategy. Research shows that repeated exposure to a message, even something meaningless or untrue, is enough to make people accept it or see it in a positive light. ❸ You’ve all seen the car commercials on TV like, uh, the one that refers to its roomy cars over and over again. You know which one I mean. This guy is driving around and keeps stopping to pick up different people. He picks up three or four people. And each time, the narrator says, “Plenty of room for friends, plenty of room for family, plenty of room for everybody.” The same message is repeated several times in the course of the commercial.
❹ Now the car, the car actually looks kind of small, it’s not a very big car at all, but you get the sense that it’s pretty spacious. You’d think the viewer would reach the logical conclusion that the slogan mis-represents the product, instead, what usually happens is that when the statement “plenty of room” is repeated often enough, people are actually convinced it’s true. ❺ Um, another strategy they use is to get a celebrity to advertise a product. It turns out that we’re more likely to accept an advertisement claim made by somebody famous, a person we admire and find appealing. We tend to think they’re trustworthy. ❻ So, uh, you might have a car commercial that features a well-known race car driver. ❼ Now, it may not be a very fast car, uh, it could even be an inexpensive vehicle with a low performance rating. But if a popular race car driver is shown driving it and saying, “I like my cars fast!” Then people would believe the car is impressive for its speed.
1 Topic :
Scientists have learned some interesting things about the intellectual abilities of babies. They say there’s evidence that babies as young as five months old can do basic arithmetic, that they can add. Scientists think babies know one plus one equals two and not one. The evidence is indirect because obviously you can’t ask a five-month old baby to add up some numbers for you.
So they devised an experiment where, um, in this experiment a baby is shown a doll on a table. Ok, so the baby looks at the doll. Then the researcher lowers a screen in front of the doll, so now the doll is hidden behind the screen. But the baby has already seen the doll and, so, knows it’s there.
Well, then the researcher takes a second doll and very obviously places it behind the screen with the first one. Ok, so now you have two dolls behind the screen, right? Well, no, cause what the researcher did was they secretly took away one of the dolls. And then when they raised the screen back up, the baby, well, it expects to see two dolls, right? But there’s only one there!
And guess what? The baby surprised! It expects two but it only sees one. How could the researchers tell that the baby surprised? Well, they recorded the baby’s eye movement on camera. And we know that when a baby is surprised by something, a loud noise or an unexpected flash of light maybe, it stares at where the noise or light is coming from. And that’s what the babies in the experiment did. They stared, cause the babies know if you add one doll and one doll, you should have two dolls. So when it sees one doll, then it stares because it’s surprised.
很清楚我们知道这里的听力内容结构为：1 Topic+1 Experiment+Group1&Group2
intellec abilit babies
a baby shown a doll on a table
hidden behind the screen
2nd doll with 1st one hidden screen
secretly took away one doll
expects to see two dolls
see only one
Surprised ∵eye movement
讲座介绍了natural birds 和urban birds生活习惯上的区别。
首先是交流方式有差异。Urban birds在交流求偶或者建立领地方面，声音会比较响，为了在嘈杂的环境下更容易被听到。Natural birds就不需要这么做。
主题：wildlife birds adapt to urban life